• Alida Emini University of Tetova – Tetovo
  • Arben Djemaili University of Zurich – Zurich
Keywords: Structural-semantic modeling, word form, productivity, frequency


The purpose of this paper is to analyze the agent nouns in German and Albanian using the structural-semantic modeling. This type of modeling is present in the works of Fleischer, Dreger, Simoska and the Grammar of the Albanian language (hereinafter referred to as Albanian grammar), while the reverse model, the semantic-structural one, is present in the works of Motsch, Duden, K. Koneski and Veleva. The structural-semantic approach is characterized by a certain parallel combination between the form and the meaning of the word-forming pattern. If we analyze the word forming "base + suffix", we certainly cannot grasp anything about its semantics. But when we specify this pattern, by analyzing the affiliation of the motivating basis and the characteristics of the word-forming suffix (such as V + -er, V + -ac, V + -ues), we will see certain semantic meanings. Ishtuganova (Ischtuganowa 2003: 45) lists the following examples: Lehrer, Schaber, Ächzer, Aufkleber and others. This pattern is also followed in the speech analyzes of Fleischer / Barz (1995). It starts from a particular word-building structure and then records the various functions and meanings. This process in literature is also referred to as the semasiological approach. Word-forming models in word formation are characterized by the criterion of productivity and activity. In the Wörterbuch der wortbildenden Elemente der deutschen Sprache by M. D. Stepanova, the word-forming models are labeled as productivity and frequency. In most cases, the notions of productivity / nonproduction and frequency / inefficiency coincide with each other, i.e. when one model is productive, at the same time, it is frequency, otherwise, when one model is unproductive, it follows that it is also non-frequency. Very rarely comes the features "unproductive, frequency", for example, the word-forming model V + -et is not productive, but it is frequent. Productive models serve to form new words and to fulfill the lexicon in the language. In many cases, the productivity of the -er word-forming model is indispensable. In essence, Stepanowa / Fleischer (156) states, "the active" is more complicated, according to which a limited number of new words are distinguished from the non-productive models. The decisive criterion of the degree of productivity and activity of the models may be the static coverage of the new formations that have occurred in a certain period of time.


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How to Cite
Emini, A., & Djemaili, A. (2018). STRUCTURAL-SEMANTIC NOUN MODELING IN THE GERMAN AND ALBANIAN LANGUAGE. Knowledge International Journal, 22(6), 1485 - 1491. Retrieved from