• Igor Stanojoski Goce Delchev University, Shtip
Keywords: evidentiality, Macedonian, Bulgarian, language


Evidentiality is the indication of the nature of evidence for a given statement; that is, whether evidence exists for the statement and if so what kind. An evidential is the particular grammatical element that indicates evidentiality. All languages have some means of specifying the source of information. The information can be transmitted as a secondary one, at the same time it can expresses the speaker’s reservation to the veracity of the quoted information. In most languages in the world evidentiality is expressed by lexical means, whereas in Macedonian and Bulgarian is performed by the use of the appropriate grammatical forms of tenses (simultaneously supported by lexical means). Macedonian and Bulgarian have a distinct grammatical category of evidentiality that is required to be expressed at all times. In Macedonian and Bulgarian language learning as a second/foreign language grammatical evidentials are causing difficulties for students. The use of evidentiality has pragmatic implications in Macedonian and Bulgarian. For example, a person who makes a false statement qualified as a belief may be considered mistaken; a person who makes a false statement qualified as a personally observed fact will probably be considered to have lied. Evidential markers in Macedonian and Bulgarian also serve other purposes, such as indicating the speaker's attitude to, or belief in, the statement. In some circumstances, a direct evidential marker may serve to indicate that the speaker is certain about the event stated. Using an indirect evidential marker, such as one for hearsay or reported information, may indicate that the speaker is uncertain about the statement, or doesn't want to take responsibility for its truth. A "hearsay" evidential may then have the undertone of "that's what they say; whether or not it's true is nothing I can take responsibility for". In this article, I analyze the grammatical evidentials (confirmative and non-confirmative) in Macedonian and Bulgarian, their meaning and their usage, differences between Macedonian and Bulgarian evidentiality and methods of learning. The terminology, which is actually in usage in textbooks for Macedonian/Bulgarian language learning seemed to be too complicated for foreign students. This research is based on my work with Polish, Czech and Ukrainian students. Polish, Czech and Ukrainian language, same as the other Slavic languages, excluding Balkan-Slavic (Macedonian and Bulgarian) are using only one frequent past tense. In Macedonian and Bulgarian old perfect tense has more functions and one of them is indirect evidentiality. Old Slavic tenses Aorist and Imperfect are being used as confirmative evidentials.


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How to Cite
Stanojoski, I. (2018). GRAMATICAL EVIDENTIALITY IN MACEDONIAN AND BULGARIAN LANGUAGE LEARNING AS A SECOND/FOREIGN LANGUAGE. Knowledge International Journal, 22(6), 1493 - 1501. Retrieved from