• Vesna Koceva Faculty of Philology, University Goce Delchev – Shtip
Keywords: learning, acquisition, foreign language, input, monitor


This paper discusses the Krashen’s theory of second language acquisition. It initially presents the hypotheses on the basis of which Krashen sets the principles of second language acquisition. Each hypothesis is explained in detail in continuation. According to the acquisition-learning hypothesis the essential difference between language acquisition and language learning is the difference between conscious acceptance of knowledge that is, memorizing rules and unconscious language learning. According to Krashen’s opinions, presented in this paper, there is no interaction between intuitive, implicit and unconscious knowledge, i.e. acquisition, and formal, conscious and explicit knowledge, i.e. learning. According to the natural order hypothesis, the human mind has a kind of internal program or plan according to which the acquisition of some language structures occurs in a natural way. This natural order of acquisition occurs independently of learning. Furthermore, the paper presents the monitor hypothesis i.e. it explains how acquisition and learning are used. According to the monitor hypothesis the ability to produce sentences is related to the knowledge of second language acquisition, while conscious acceptance of knowledge occurs later to make some contribution to the accuracy of an utterance. All the terms and conditions needed in order for the monitor to be used successfully are listed below, as well as some types of “monitor” use. This paper also presents the input hypothesis that defines the level of input that provides the ideal conditions for language acquisition to happen. Krashen suggests that language acquisition occurs when learners understand the messages that contain structures that are one step beyond the learner’s current language ability. The input hypothesis defends the perspective that we acquire the language by first seeking the meaning and, then learning the structures. In addition, this paper emphasizes the significance of the receptive skills of language learning i.e. it explains the comprehensible input hypothesis and the simplified input used as a source of comprehensible input. Finally, the paper discusses the affective filter hypothesis that explains why learners that are exposed to large amounts of linguistic comprehensible input do not achieve native-like competence in second language acquisition.


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How to Cite
Koceva, V. (2018). KRASHEN’S THEORY OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION. Knowledge International Journal, 22(6), 1507 - 1514. Retrieved from