ENGLISH LANGUAGE KNOWLEDGE COMBINED WITH ICT – KNOWLEDGE WITHOUT BORDERS
The number of technological innovations is growing rapidly every day along with the growth of the English language. These innovations are changing the way in which we communicate, learn and teach (Jarvis 2005). Computers have taken their place as a natural part of the language learning process (Warschauer 1999). In addition, CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) in the language classroom is developing as quickly as computer technology itself develops. It would seem necessary to explain here approaches to CALL in order to have a better insight into theory related to the specific teaching focus. High technology, especially computers, is valuable resource for the modern language teacher who is expected to develop and enhance his/her professional skills. Language centers throughout the world accepts the fact that computers are essential for learning purposes (Jones 2001). However, some teachers admit the importance of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) but still remain uncommitted to it. Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) may be defined as “the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning” (Levy 1997:1). Nunan (2003: 248) defines CALL as “any process in which a learner uses a computer and, as a result, improves his or her language”. Accordingly, it is argued that ”CALL should not be too closely associated with self-access or autonomy and that teachers are needed to drive the CALL process” (Jones 2001: 360). The intention is to show here in this paper how CALL concepts and techniques may enhance learners’ writing skills. One of the focuses of the paper, firstly, is to discuss CALL background with the emphasis on the principles for teaching CALL and previous applications in terms of writing skills. Secondly, it will explain teaching context with the highlight on the age, level and needs of students in university teaching context in Serbia. Thirdly, this paper will consider project rationale by giving the aims’ explanation, description and evaluation of it according to chosen criteria. Finally, the paper will outline broader implications of the analyses. The purpose of this paper is to show the usefulness of a computer and a website as mediators between teacher and learners who need advice, comments and feedback about their writing improvement. More research is needed on best applicable CALL approach in the university teaching context (university students of advanced level in Serbia), especially as teachers grow in familiarity with the programs, and students become more accustomed to writing on computers (Grimes and Warschauer, 2006). Another purpose of this paper is to discuss the progress of the group’s project (Developing a website for writing skills improvement with a focus on students in university teaching context) from initial planning to final presentation.
Bax, S. CALL-past, present and future. System, vol. 31, pp.13-28, 2003.
Chapelle, A.C. and Douglas, D. Assessing Language through Computer Technology. Cambridge: CUP, 2006.
Chen ‘Guidelines for evaluating ESL listening resources on the World Wide Web’in Morrison, B., Cruikshank, Gardner, D., James, J. and Keobke, K. (eds.) Information Technology & Multimedia in English Language Teaching. English Language Centre, Hong Kong Polytechnic University,1999.
Dickinson, L. Learner Autonomy 2: Learner Training for Language Learning. Dublin: Authentik. 1992.
Grimes, D. and Warschauer, M. ‘Automated essay scoring in the classroom’. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, April. Available at: http://www.gse.uci.edu/faculty/markw/markw_papers.php> [Accessed 17 June 2007], 2006.
Invitational Symposium on Assessing and Advancing Technology Options in Language Learning (AATOLL). Checklist: Evaluative criteria for computer-delivered language learning systems. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center. Available at: URL http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/NetWorks/NW31/NW31t.pdf [Accessed 16 June 2007],1998.
Ioannou-Georgiou S. ‘The future of CALL’. ELT Journal Vol. 60/4, pp. 382-384, 2006.
Jarvis H. Technology and change in English Language Teaching (ELT), The Asian EFL Journal Vol.7:1 Available at: http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/December_05_hj.php> [Accessed 16 June 2007], 2005.
Jones, F.J. CALL and the responsibilities of teachers and administrators. ELT Journal Vol. 55/4, pp. 360-367, 2001.
Lake, N. Survey review: learner training in EFL course books, in ELT Journal Vol. 51/2, pp. 169-182, 1997.
Lee, I. ‘Supporting greater autonomy in language learning’. ELT Journal Vol. 52/4, pp. 282-290, 1998.
Levy, M. Computer-assisted language learning: Context and conceptualization. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. 1997.
Milovanović, R., Ćirković-Miladinović, I. and Stojanović, B. (2016). Assertiveness of prospective teachers and preschool teachers. Journal Plus Education, ISSN: 1842-077X, E-ISSN (online) 2068-1151 Vol XVI (2016), (289 – 303).
Nunan, D. (ed.) Practical English language teaching. New York: McGraw-Hill/Contemporary, 2003.
Stojanović, B., Milovanović, R., Ćirković-Miladinović, I. (2016). Encouraging the Development of Cognitive Operations in Early School Age Children by Applying the System of Didactic Games. The New Educational Review Vol. 44, No. 2 (139-152), ISSN 1732-6729
Sullivan, K. and Lindgren, E. ‘Self-assessment in computer-aided second language writing’. ELT Journal Vol. 56/3, pp. 258-266, 2002.
Tanner, R. et. al. ‘Piloting portfolios: using portfolios in pre-service teacher education’ ELT Journal Vol. 54/1: 20-30, 2000.
Warschauer, M. CALL vs. electronic literacy: Reconceiving technology in the language classroom. Available at: http://www.cilt.org.uk/research/resfor2/warsum1.htm.> [Accessed 17 June 2007], 1999.
Warschauer, M. Electronic literacies: Language, culture, and power in online education. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1999.
Warschauer, M. Networking into academic discourse. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, Vol. 1(1), pp. 45-58. 2002.
Warschauer, M. and Kern, R. ‘Theory and practice of network-based language teaching’ in Warschauer, M. and Kern, R. ed., Network-based Language Teaching: Concepts and practice. pp. 1-19. Cambridge: CUP, 2000.
Warschauer, M., and Ware, P. Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda. Language Teaching Research Vol. 10(2), pp. 1-24. 2006.