• Igor Stanojoski Goce Delchev University, Shtip
Keywords: renarration, tense, Macedonian, language


Renarration as a part of category of evidentiality is the indication of the nature of evidence for a given statement; that is, whether evidence exists for the statement and if so what kind. An evidential is the particular grammatical element that indicates evidentiality. All languages have some means of specifying the source of information. The information can be transmitted as a secondary one, at the same time it can expresses the speaker’s reservation to the veracity of the quoted information. Many languages with grammatical evidentiality mark evidentiality independently from tense-aspect or epistemic modality (which is the speaker's evaluation of the information, i.e. whether it is reliable, uncertain, probable). In most languages in the world evidentiality is expressed by lexical means, whereas in Macedonian is performed by the use of the appropriate grammatical forms of tenses (simultaneously supported by lexical means). Macedonian language have a distinct grammatical category of evidentiality that is required to be expressed at all times. Grammaticized evidentiality in Macedonian and Bulgarian languages is usually treated as an exotic characteristic of those two Balkan-Slavic languages. The use of evidentiality has pragmatic implications in Macedonian and Bulgarian. For example, a person who makes a false statement qualified as a belief may be considered mistaken; a person who makes a false statement qualified as a personally observed fact will probably be considered to have lied. Evidential markers in Macedonian and Bulgarian also serve other purposes, such as indicating the speaker's attitude to, or belief in, the statement. In some circumstances a direct evidential marker may serve to indicate that the speaker is certain about the event stated. Using an indirect evidential marker, such as one for hearsay or reported information, may indicate that the speaker is uncertain about the statement, or doesn't want to take responsibility for its truth. A "hearsay" evidential may then have the undertone of "that's what they say; whether or not it's true is nothing I can take responsibility for". In this article, I analyze the grammatical evidentials (mostly non-confirmative, indirect) used for renarration in Macedonian. In Macedonian old perfect tense has more functions and one of them is indirect evidentiality. Old Slavic tenses Aorist and Imperfect are being used as confirmative evidentials. Special kinds of non-confirmative usage of the old perfect tense is dubitative mood, admirative mood, conclusivity and so called “unprepared mind”. The speaker is able to identify them and to distinguish them from old perfect meaning and from historically newer reportative usage. Old perfect forms are being used also for renarration of present tense. In this article I analyze usage of present vs. perfect forms for renarration.


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How to Cite
Stanojoski, I. (2018). RENARRATION OF PRESENT TENSE IN MACEDONIAN LANGUAGE. Knowledge International Journal, 22(6), 1633 - 1636. Retrieved from