MUSICAL AND FOLKLORE ACCENTS IN THE NEW YEAR'S FESTIVE CUSTOM AND RITUAL CYCLE IN DOBRUDZHAq
The calendar of festive rituality in Dobrudzha fits in the Bulgarian folk festive calendar with its own characteristic features and regional specifics, conditioned by the complex ethnic and demographic processes, which determine the historical, social and cultural development in that part of the country.
The New year's festive customs and rituals complex in the folk's calendar of Dobrudzha is placed in different time. Depending on the colorful ethnographic map of the region, New year is celebrated on the 1st of January by the Bulgarian-Christians (Vasiliovden, Survaki, Surva)) and the Armenians celebrate it (Gahant) on the 14th January – influenced by the Russian old believes. For the Christian gypsies, New year (Bango Vasil, Bango Vasile, Vasilden) is also celebrated on 14th January. The usual festive complex of the gypsies includes preparation, ritual festive dinner (the evening of 13th January), the custom of survakane (on 1st January), and the revelry is accompanied by a lot of music, songs and games and continues for two more days.
In some areas of the district, on 2nd of January Silvistra, Karamanovden (Rinachovden) is celebrated, which is also included within the New year's celebrations.
The presence of the musical folklore, despite of its specifics for the different ethnicities, is one of the common compulsory elements of the New year's festive rituality. It has different functions:
1. Applied, definitively hedonistic function (in the family celebrations of New year, name days, visits to the best men, friends and relatives and in some occasions in club's celebrations);
2. Organic presence of the customs and rituals practices, specific for Dobrudzha; short songs-refrains, related to the marriage fortune-telling in the Laduvane custom (performed in the evening and in the morning of Survaki, the ritual practices of which are similar to those of Eniovden; the ritual singing of the bachelors at Karamanovden (Rinachovden);
3. Participation in spectacular and entertaining customs: (performance of ritual songs with good wishes character, in the spirit of Survakari's "statements” in relation to the custom buhai , (buchilo);
4. The presence of instrumental musical folklore, as accompaniment of great village horo, performed during the festive days.
Part of the New year's festive custom and ritual practices are abandoned after the middle of the XX century as well as nowadays. The musical and folklore accent in them are one of the most sustainable elements which come as testimony of the preservation of the traditions in the folks’ memory.
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