RITES AND CEREMONIES CELEBRATIONS
The festive-ritual system is an important element of the culture of every ethnic community - it is a marker and a means of preserving its ethnic identity; it combines customary law, forms of expression of collective joy and sorrow, and other forms of individual expression. The holiday-ritual system is an essential element of the cultural process and of the intangible cultural heritage. The object of the paper are the Bulgarians born in Moldova and Ukraine (so called Bessarabia in the past) but currently living in emigration in Bulgaria. The subject of the paper is their festive-ritual system. The main purpose is to study the preservation and transformation of holidays and rites in diaspora with a point of view to their preserving as an intangible cultural heritage in the 21st century. The festive-ritual system of every nation is an important element of its culture, which preserves its ethnic self-consciousness and contributes to its historical development and self-preservation. In this culture reveal features and characteristics that it shows the natural desire for social work and objective need to regulate public life by collectively accepted norms and rituals, which somehow combines morality and art of a community. Thus, each rite or group of rituals connected, in a sense as a whole as ritual content and ritual action, become a celebration, participate in the building of the festive system of the people. That is why, by looking at customs, we are acquainted with those mythological, religious and other notions that have dealt with the imagination of the people and have been the basis of its cultural work, we also touch upon the perceptions of its psychology, some of the dimensions of its nature, to his / her ethnic personality. Studying the festive-ritual system of the Bessarabian Bulgarians is of great importance for Bulgarian ethnographic science. Describing them will help to restore the customs and traditions of the Bulgarians from 100-150 years ago. This is particularly important for places where memories of the native land are permanently forgotten. In the text the political, social and cultural conditions in Bulgaria, Moldova, and Ukraine, which led to the mobility and targeted migrations of the Bessarabian Bulgarians at the end the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century, are described. The family and community holidays and rites, practiced in an emigrant environment, are analyzed. The paper identifies the changes in the original festive-ritual system, and comments innovations, adaptations, and breaking with tradition. The study is based on the cultural heritage science approach using materials collected from author’s observations and interviews. The fieldwork sources are supplemented by information drawn from publications on history and ethnology of the Bessarabian Bulgarians.
The Bessarabian Bulgarians http://www.bulgaria21.net 25.02.2018г.
Ivanova, R. Zhivkov, T. Bulgarian folk poetry and prose in seven volumes, T.2, Ordinary songs, Electricity LiterNet https://liternet.bg 25.02.2018г.
Vodinchar, E. Calendar ritual and identity of the Bulgarian emigrants in Besarabia, Electronic Edition LiterNet https://liternet.bg 25.02.2018г.
Personal archive of interviews with Bessarabian Bulgarians