ETHICAL CONTROVERSIES OF THE BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ENHANCEMENT OF HUMAN BEINGS
The subject of this paper is a philosophical reflection on the moral justification of the biotechnological enhancement of human one of the more important issues of bioethics. It is considered outside of the domain of traditional methods of transformation and situated in the field of pharmacological and genetic engineering. The study constitutes a theoretical discourse which encompasses different aspects of scientific programs for improvement. The aim of the paper is to consider the effects of a biotechnological application of scientific research results for therapeutic purposes, as well as for the purpose of improving the human species, particularly in the moral sense. Taken into account are objections and arguments of scientists and ethicists about the justification of directly influencing mutated genes, with an aim to heal as well as recombine genes in order to achieve desired characteristics. The paper argues that the improvement of intellectual abilities does not in itself contribute to moral improvement unless it includes the part of the cognitive abilities that contribute, not only to a better moral judgment, but also to the free choice of a better moral conduct. The second part contains an interpretation of the view that behavior stimulated by certain medicines and recorded as socially acceptable does not necessarily imply an improved moral character.The author concludes that the ambivalence of ethical approaches, regarding the admissibility of biological modification is based, on the one hand, on man’s need to become better, which makes this type of undertaking admissible, and on the other hand, on the distrust towards his actual ontological possibilities to truly become better through biotechnological intervention. The human natural system is so complex that scientific knowledge, regardless of the extent to which it can reach, is not enough to make radical modification changes, and in its end result there are no negative effects. Even if science comes to the discovery of such a combination of genes that would lead to exceptional intelligence, it would not, however, be sufficient for a complete improvement of man if other, important factors are missing.
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