ELECTROMYOGRAPHY OF THE MASSETER MUSCLE - A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
The chewing muscles are at the base of the stomatognatic system. Due to their ability to perform contractions, it is possible to bring the lower jaw in motion and to chew. During this process there is an electronic potential of each of the muscles which can be investigated by electromyography. Knowing the values and parameters of this study about musculus masseter, as a major chewing muscle, it would be an advantage in establishing the function of the chewing system and the diagnosis of various diseases. The purpose of this review is to analyze and summarize the scientific data on electromyography (EMG) of m. masseter in norm and craniomandibular disfunctions. An electronic search was made in the following databases PubMed, Google, Lilac from June to July 2017, according to keywords. From the published literary sources, the titles and information which do not correspond to the topic of this review are excluded, which resulted in a final selection of 30 scientific papers. The analysis of the data shows the possibilities of applying electromyography in the study of m. masseter in both conditions – norm and pathology. There are different techniques and conditions in performing this study. Some of the authors offer the use of a surface EMG, examining the muscle in static states such as maximum intercuspation, incisal occlusion, muscle contraction at 50% of maximum clenching force, etc. Other sources suggest an investigation of the m. masseter during dynamic conditions such as chewing, laterotrusion, protusion / retrusion, etc. In the cases which analyze the muscle activity during chewing, there is a lack of consensus in regard to the used food for the purpose of the study. Also of interest are the studies with needle EMG, due to which a difference in the activity of the superficial and deep parts of a normal musculus masseter is proven. There is information about using a portable EMG during sleep in a patient-friendly environment, which is particularly useful for diagnosing nocturnal bruxism and bruxomania. Despite the variety of techniques, EMG is seen as one of the most precise methods in the study of chewing muscles and the diagnosis of craniomandibular disorders.
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