PROFILE OF SUCCESSFUL XXI CENTURY LEADERS – A QUALITATIVE APPROACH
The constant change in the business environment imposes redefinition of organizational roles, restructuring of organizational models, changes in the way the organizations function, and different perspectives for leadership. The various leadership theories, considered over time, clearly show how leadership focus has shifted: from narrowly described processes and imposition of sanctions for discrepancies between set and fulfilled, to the perception of the leader as a mentor and a role model who helps employees to develop and succeed. Leadership, as a social phenomenon, unites people around a common goal. The leader empowers and motivate the followers to create added value for the company. Comments about leadership decline are increasingly common nowadays. This is probably one of the reasons the interest in the topic has increased. Leadership has different dimensions and could be discussed from multiple research perspectives. Leadership could be considered through the prism of the leader's functions; the factors on which it depends; the results of leadership, etc. New technologies, IoT, digital transformation and transition to industry 4.0 inevitably affect the way leaders behave. Scholars and practitioners continue to improve the models that would facilitate leaders in their efforts to be effective. There has been a growing interest in qualitative methodology for leadership research. Qualitative approaches allow for more in-depth discussion, conscious understanding of the interviewee's answers, discovering new ideas and phenomena. Based on qualitative survey a model for the effective leader in the XXI century has been elaborated. The center of the model has been built by trust. Trust is found to be essential for leadership. The respondents shared various leadership competences that relates to trust (peace of mind and charisma; strategic orientation; personal commitment; environment of trust; empowerment; delegation of tasks; acts as a mediator, etc.). The other answers were grouped in four broad categories. The first one represents the team spirit. The key competences include communicativeness, ability to listen actively, motivational skills, etc. Business results are in the focus of the next group of competences. The third group is composed of competencies that describe the ability of the leader to support ideas and initiatives. The fourth group of competences is about personal example, which includes behavioral characteristics based on values. The results could serve as a reference point in elaboration of strategies for human resources development, in supporting programs aimed at building specific management skills, as well as in defining corporate models for entrepreneurship.
Bass, B. M. (1990). Handbook of leadership. Free Press.
Boje, D. M. (1995). Stories of the storytelling organization: A postmodern analysis of Disney as “Tamara-Land”. Academy of Management Journal, 38, pp. 997-1035.
Bryman, A. (2004). Social research methods. 2nd edition. Oxford university press.
Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. Harper Row. NY.
Conger, J. A. (1998). Qualitative research as the cornerstone methodology for understanding leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 9, 107-121.
Crainer, S. (1996). Key management ideas. Pitman.
Davidkov, Ts. (2005). Organizational management. Sofia university press.
Dimitrov, A. (2018). The digital age leadership: A transhumanic perspective. Journal of leadership studies, 12 (3), 79-81.
Dimitrov, A. (2017). Political leadership in terms of Crisis – Theories and models worthy for our changing world. Journal of comparative politics, 10 (1), pp. 25-39.
Dimitrov, P. (1992). The psychological business of the manager. Iko-M-Intelekt. (in Bulgarian)
Drucker, P. F. (1997). Management for the future. Kariva. (in Bulgarian)
Gibson, J. L., Ivanchevich, J. M., & Donnelly, J. H. (1997). Organizations: Behavior, structure, processes. Irwin.
George, B., Sims, P., McLean, A., & Mayer, D. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review, 85 (2), 129 - 157.
Girdauskiene, L., & Eyvazzade, F. (2015). The profile of an effective female leadership in multicultural context. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 210, 11-20.
Halim, N. A. A., & Razak, N. A. (2014). Communication Strategies of Women Leaders in Entrepreneurship. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 118, 21-28.
Kanazireva, R. (2018). Factors and models for corporate entrepreneurship. Yearbook of the Sofia University. Faculty of economics and business administration, 16, 161-182. (in Bulgarian)
Kanazireva, R. (2016). Corporate Entrepreneurship in Bulgarian Software Companies. International Journal of Latest Trends Finance and Economic Sciences, 6 (3), 1153-1161.
Klenke, K. (2015). Qualitative research in the study of leadership. 2nd edition. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Maxwell, J. C. (2005). The 21 indispensable qualities of a leader. Thomas Nelson.
Mihaylova, I. (2020). Conflict management. Strategies for intervening managers as an informal third party in conflicts between employees. Yearbook of the Sofia University. Faculty of economics and business administration, 18, 231-246. (in Bulgarian)
Mihaylova, I. (2016). Organizational conflict management: Management approach, competence, and strategies. Proceedings from the Scientific conference “Contemporary management practices IX – Management science, economics and business practices - modern perspectives and challenges”, 219-227. (in Bulgarian)
Naydenova, V., Jamdjieva, M., & Staevska, V. (2008). Qualitative methods in social sciences.
Sofia University press.
Naylor, J. (2004). Management. Pearson education Ltd., England.
Paunov, M. (2006). Organizational behavior. Ciela. (in Bulgarian)
Pearce, T. (2003). Leading out loud. San Francisco. Jossey-Bass.
Peeling, N. (2005). Brilliant manager. Prentice Hall.
Piotrowski, C., & Armstrong, T. R. (1987). Executive leadership characteristics portrayed on CNN’s pinnacle. Behavioral science newsletter, 23.
Sayles, L. R. (1964). Managerial behavior: Administration in complex organizations. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Semerdzhiev, Tz. (2007). Strategic management and leadership. Leader. Softrade. (in Bulgarian)
Shamir, B., & Eilam, G. (2005). What’s your story? A life-stories approach to authentic leadership development. The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 395-417.
Spicochi, R. L., & Tyran, K. L. (2002). A tale of two leaders: Exploring the role of leaders’ storytelling and follower sensemaking in transforming organizations. Academy of Management. Denver, paper work.
Stewart, J. (2006). Transformational leadership: An Evolving Concept Examined through the Works of Burns, Bass, Avolio and Leithwood. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 54, 1 - 29.
Waldman, D. A., Lituchy, T., & Gopalakrishnan, M. (1998). A qualitative analysis of leadership and quality improvement. Leadership Quarterly, 9, 177-201.