AN EXCURSION INTO PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY OF CREATIVITY
Creativity is usually characterized by originality and effectiveness, novelty and appropriateness, quality and high intelligence. Knowledge and creativity are interrelated, knowledge favors creativity and creativity allows the discovery of new knowledge. However, they are also opposed in the sense that creativity sometimes can contradict the so far established or traditional knowledge. The psychology of creativity is flourishing, but research in the area of the philosophy of creativity is scarce. Here I present a philosophical analysis of philosophy of creativity and the power of knowledge, which answers the important question about the interrelationship between philosophy and creativity. Sigmund Freud in his article on creativity “Creative Writers and Daydreaming” (1908) identified the process of creativity with children’s phantasying and conceived of creative writers as persons who perform sublimation. In this line of reasoning, Strachey conceived of creative writers as “successful neurotics”. According to Hausman (1979), there are four utmost questions about creativity, namely: “Who is the creator? Why does the creator create? What happens when the creator creates? and How does the creator create?” In general there are numerous strategies how one can enhance one’s creative capacity, including by psychopharmacological neuroenhancement. Pragmatic strategies, for example, include the following ones: 1) performance of proposed steps more efficiently, 2) increase of the amount of time spent or the number of times a given step is performed., 3) the a performance of steps, but in different order and 4) the introduction of a brand new stage model (Gascón & Kaufman, 2010). Plato’s and Aristotle’s views on creativity were antagonistic: Plato argued that creativity is a mysterious act of imitation, whereas Aristotle argued that it is a scientifically explainable act. Immanuel Kant conceived of creativity of geniuses as a natural gift, which rules are not given and that creativity as a capacity cannot be taught. Arthur Schopenhauer conceived of creativity as a pure contemplation of Ideas and noted the similarities between creative geniuses and madmen. Bertrand Russell’s contribution is that he proposed a genuine test for creativity. More recently, the dark side of creativity in terms of malevolent usage of creative products or even malevolent creative acts. Finally, it is noted that a positive correlation between creativity scores and certain psychopathological illnesses, such as hypomania, mania, schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorders has been found. This correlation seems to be related to dopaminergic function in the brain. A conclusion is reached that creativity in fact appears before a degeneration in terms of psychopathology appears.
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