ANTICANCER MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AND THEIR RADIOIMMUNOCONJUGATES - GATEWAY TO THE MORE SUCCESSFUL THERAPY
Keywords:monoclonal antibodies, immunoconjugates, cancer
Target therapy is the result of many years research dedicated to identify the characteristics of cancer cells and confirmation the differences between cancer cells and normal cells. The treatment of cancer is focused on killing the fast dividing cells. The need to achieve specificity in the treatment of cancer has led to designing and synthesizing of high selective agents, like monoclonal antibodies. To choose the right monoclonal antibody, first is important to identify the antigen on the surface of tumor cells. Monoclonal antibody-based therapy is one of the most successful therapeutic approaches for solid tumors and malignancies. Antibodies have shown high complexity in the manner of action and their biological properties. Manipulation of genes of antibodies with microbiologic techniques has led to significant modification in murine proteins. In order to not be recognized by human immune system, murine antibodies can be transduced to human or humanized monoclonal antibodies. Various studies have shown the ability of the antibodies to target the specific tumors and localize in or around the tumor cells. Identification of specific antigen on the surface of the tumor cells provides the formulation of monoclonal antibodies from animals and humans, which selectively bind to antigen and allows less toxicity to healthy cells. Conjugation of antibodies with cytotoxic drugs, toxins and radioisotopes provides development of selective and specific reagents. This immunoconjugates have three parts: monoclonal antibody selective for specific antigen, molecule that has a capacity to kill the cancer cell, and linker that connect the antibody and the active molecule. Antibody-drug conjugates, have chemotherapy drugs attached to the antibody, target the surface of cancer cells and deliver the toxic substance to that specific area. This approach can eliminate some of the side effects of chemotherapy, which can damage healthy cells when used as a single agent. Novel processes of enzymatically conjugating small molecule toxins to antibodies allow formulation of high selectivity agents. Radioimmunotherapy is a treatment that uses monoclonal antibodies in combination with radiation. By attaching a monoclonal antibody to a radioactive molecule, this technique can deliver a dose of radiation therapy directly to tumor cells. The aim of this paper is to do a review of literature for most commonly used antibodies and radioimmunoconjugates in the treatment of different types of cancer showing in the same time our contribution with obtaining results.