• Krasimira Zlatkova Southwest University "Neofit Rilski", Blagoevgrad


Risk factors, coronary artery disease, cardiovascular system


Diseases of the cardiovascular system are common and cause high mortality worldwide. Coronary artery disease is associated with constriction of the coronary arteries as a result of the development of atherosclerosis. There are a number of risk factors for its development, most often it is a combination of several factors. Over time, accumulative various risk factors lead to the manifestation of the disease. Coronary artery damage can be overcome or reduced by controlling these risk factors. The great vulnerability of the cardiovascular system is due to the deteriorating environment, stress, poor nutrition, increased smoking and socially significant diseases - especially diabetes, hypertension and obesity. Customary risk factors for developing coronary artery disease - hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, and family history- have an adverse effect on the prognosis in patients with established disease, probably through their effects on the progression of atherosclerotic disease processes. Increased resting heart rate is an indication of a worse prognosis in patients with suspected or proven coronary artery disease. Risk factors are divided into those that can be controlled and others that cannot. The risk factors that can be controlled (modifiable) are: High blood pressure; high blood cholesterol levels; smoking; diabetes; overweight or obesity; lack of physical activity; unhealthy diet and stress. Those that cannot be controlled (conventional) are: Age (simply getting older increases risk); sex (men are generally at greater risk of coronary artery disease); family history; and race. According to the latest studies, an average of 1 in 4 people suffer from high blood pressure. Elevated levels of total cholesterol and LDL are major risk factors for coronary heart disease in men and women. The risks associated with smoking are highest in current and recent smokers, compared to non-smokers and those who have given up in the more distant past. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death and a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease, including coronary artery disease, heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Obesity is an independent risk factor for the development and progression of coronary heart disease. Acute stress is a significant trigger for the development of acute coronary syndrome. The prevalence of symptomatic coronary artery disease increases monotonically with age. The main cardiovascular risk factors explain almost half of the gender difference at risk of coronary heart disease. Coronary heart disease has a higher incidence in some families and this is due to the community of genes, diet and health habits. Different studies show a difference in the prevalence of coronary heart disease in different races. In conclusion, we can say that knowing the risk factors in detail can help prophylactic and prevent coronary heart disease. Controlling them reduces the incidence and mortality caused by cardiovascular events. Knowing the risk factors allows to improve both the duration and the quality of life.




How to Cite

Zlatkova, K. (2020). RISK FACTORS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE. KNOWLEDGE - International Journal, 41(3), 539–544. Retrieved from https://ikm.mk/ojs/index.php/kij/article/view/757