• Svjetlana Lolić Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, University of Banja Luka
  • Radoslav Dekić Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, University of Banja Luka
  • Maja Manojlović Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, University of Banja Luka
  • Biljana Radusin Sopić Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, University of Banja Luka
Keywords: vegetables, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes


Recently, epidemics that have occurred as a result of the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms by consuming contaminated fresh vegetables have become more frequent. Among the most massive were poisonings by bacteria originating from spinach in the Unated States of America, from mung beans in Japan, as well as an epidemic caused by Escherichia coli from pumpkin in Germany. Unfortunately, hemolytic uraemic syndrome caused by Escherichia coli in Germany affected 3,950 people in 2011, of whom 53 died. Although vegetables do not represent a natural habitat for bacteria that cause diseases in humans, it is clear that certain groups of human pathogenic microorganisms can find their ecological niches in plant production systems. Ways of contaminating plants with these bacteria are poorly understood. It is assumed that fertilization and irrigation with untreated water are some of the possible ways of transmitting pathogenic bacteria to agricultural crops. The aim of the research was to indicate the possible presence of potentially pathogenic strains of bacteria on certain vegetable crops (lettuce, spinach, tomato, paprika, carrot, parsley, red onion) in the northeastern part of Republika Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Samples were collected over three months in 10 greenhouses and 10 vegetable gardens in the Semberija area. Extraction of bacteria from the samples was performed by immersing the macerated plant tissue in the extraction solution with sterile pepton water. Indirect culture methods on highly selective chromogenic media were used to isolate Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes strains. After comparing the obtained isolates with positive controls, suspicious colonies were isolated and the strains were confirmed by DNA extraction and AmpliTest PCR method with specific primers. The presence of Salmonella enterica was confirmed on tomato fruits, bell peppers, lettuce leaves and red onion bulbs, while Listeria monocytogenes was isolated on lettuce and spinach leaves. The presence of potential pathogens on fresh vegetables, especially those consumed without prior heat treatment, is alarming. In order to prevent negative consequences, it is necessary to specify the routes of their transmission as well as to examine their viability in non-specific ecological niches such as agricultural crops. Data on the viability of bacteria on agricultural crops can be found in the literature for only a small number of strains that are "most attractive", such as Escherichia coli strains, while for other pathogens data are very scarce or non-existent. Data on their infectivity is even harder to find.


Ackers, M., Mahon, B., Leahy, E., Goode, B., Damrow, T., Hayes, P., Bibb, W., Rice, D., Barrett, T., Hutwagner, L., Griffin, P., Slutsker, L. (1998). An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with leaf lettuce consumption. J. Infect. Dis. 177:1588–1593.

Australian Institute of Food Safety (2018).

CDC-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). Outbreak of Salmonella Newport Infections Linked to Onions.

Dmitrić, M. (2018). Detekcija Salmonela vrsta i karakterizacija Salmonella enteritidis i Salmonella typhimurium poreklom iz lanca ishrane. Doktorska disertacija. Univerzitet u Beogradu.

Doyle, M.P. (1990). Foodborne illness - Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The Lancet 336, p 1111-1115.

Fenlon, D. R., I. D. Ogden, A. Vinten, and I. Svoboda (2000). The fate of Escherichia coli and E. coli 0157 in cattle slurry after application to land. Symp. Sen Soc. Appl.Microbiol. 88:149S-156S.

Heisick, J., Wagner, D., Neirman, M., Peeler, J. (1989). Listeria spp. found on fresh market produce. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55:1925–1927.

Herwaldt, B. L. (2000). Cyclospora cayetanensis: a review, focusing on the outbreaks of cyclosporiasis in the 1990s. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31:1040–1057.

Islam, M., Morgan, J., Doyle, M.P., Phatak, S.C., Millner, P.,Jiang, X. (2004). Fate of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium on carrots and radishes grown in fields treated with contaminated manure composts or irrigation water. Appl Environ Microbiol 70, 2497–2502.

ISO (2017). Horizontalna metoda za otkrivanje, određivanje broja i serotipizaciju Salmonella - Dio 1: Otkrivanje Salmonella spp. (SRPS EN ISO 6579-1:2017). Međunarodna organizacija za standardizaciju, Ženeva, Švajcarska.

Jerngklinchan, J., Saitanu, K. (1993). The occurrence of salmonellae in bean sproutsin Thailand. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 24:114–118.

Kljujev, I. (2012): Kontaminacija biljaka patogenim bakterijama iz vode za navodnjavanje. Doktorska disertacija. Univerzitet u Beogradu.

Kyere, E., Palmer; J., Wargent, J., Fletcher, G., Flint, S. (2019). Colonisation of lettuce by Listeria Monocytogenes. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 54, 14–24

Lee K.M., Runyon M., Herrman T.J., Phillips R., Hsieh J. (2015). Review of Salmonella detection and identification methods: Aspects of rapid emergency response and food safety. Food Control, 47: 264-276.

Maurischat S., Baumann B., Martin A., Malorny B.. (2015). Rapid detection and specific differentiation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica by real-time multiplex PCR. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 193: 8-14.

Murray, P. (2018): Basic medical microbiology. Elsevier: Philadelphia.

Pachepsky, Y., Shelton, D., McLain, J.E.T., Patel, J. and Mandrell, R.E. (2011). Irrigation waters as a source of pathogenic microorganisms in produce: a review. AdvAgron 113, 71–136.

Pavić, S., Smoljanović, M., Ropac, D., Laštre, D., Cetinić, E., Hadžiosmanović, M., Mioković, B., Kozačinski, L. (2005). Povrće i voće kao vehikulumi salmoneloza. Infektološki glasnik 25:1, 17–22

Pizarro-Cerda, J., Cossart, P. (2019). Microbe Profile: Listeria monocytogenes: a paradigm among intracellular bacterial pathogens. Microbiology. 165: 719-721.

Poimenidou, S.V., Chatzithoma, D.N., Nychas, G.J.,Skandamis, P.N. (2016). Adaptive response of Listeria monocytogenes to heat, salinity and low pH, after habituation on cherry tomatoes and lettuce leaves. PLoS ONE, 11, e0165746.

Scott C. A., Faruquie N. I., Reschid-Sally, L. (2004). Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture: Management Challenges in Developing Countries. CABI Publishing: Wallingrofd Oxfordshire, UK.

Solomon, E. B. , Yaron, S., Matthews, K. R. (2002). Transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from contaminated manure and irrigation water to lettuce plant tissue and its subsequent internalization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:397–400.

Vlada Republike Srpske (2015). Strategija integralnog upravljanja vodama Republike Srpske 2015-2024.

Wiwanitkit, V. (2011). Outbreak of Escherichia coli and diabetes mellitus. Indian Journal of Еndocrinology and Metabolism. July; 15(Suppl1): S70–S71

How to Cite
Lolić, S., Dekić, R., Manojlović, M., & Radusin Sopić, B. (2020). FREQUENCY OF BACTERIA SALMONELLA ENTERICA AND LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN VEGETABLE IN THE REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA (BiH). Knowledge International Journal, 42(3), 495 - 499. Retrieved from