EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY WITH DIFFERENT INTENSITY ON ADULT PATIENTS
Keywords:adult, skeletal muscle, physical activity, intensity, well-being, mental health WHO
Aging can be defined as a physiological process consisting of a set of permanent physiological changes that occur after adulthood, with the exception of disease-induced changes. Aging tends to be progressive, universal, inevitable and irreversible, although it is currently considered flexible in some respects if an active and balanced lifestyle is followed. The boundary of human life is dictated by the very internal organization of the organism. Physiological age, as opposed to chronological (calendar) age, is defined by the individual ability of the organism to adapt to environmental conditions, usually expressed through endurance, strength, flexibility, coordination and capacity. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies physical inactivity as the fourth risk factor for overall mortality after high blood pressure, smoking, and high blood sugar. It is estimated that at least 50% of the changes attributable to the aging population of the developed world are due to atrophy as a result of physical inactivity. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of physical activity with different intensity in adult patients
Methods of research: A broad systematic literature search was performed in the databases PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, PEDro and The Cochrane Library. Cross-sectional survey data from 28 European countries were used for the analysis (n = 21 008). Participation intensity was measured with the number of days and minutes of light (walking), moderate and vigorous activity. Another three dummy variables reflected how the WHO guidelines were met. Two-stage least square models were estimated with life satisfaction and subjective well-being SWB (as the dependent variable) - in adults divided into two age groups (18-64; 65+).
Results: For 18- to 64-year-olds, walking and vigorous activity significantly added to subjective well-being SWB Individuals in both age groups meeting the WHO guidelines only for moderate activity and those using a combination of moderate and vigorous activity, both reported significantly higher well-being levels compared with those not meeting the WHO guidelines.
Discusion: High-intensity exercise interventions seem to be somewhat more effective in improving physical functioning than low-intensity exercise interventions. These positive effects are of great value for older adults who are already physically impaired in improving their quality of life. Conclusions: The results show that physical exercise therapy has a positive effect on mobility and physical functioning. High-intensity exercise interventions seem to be somewhat more effective in improving physical functioning than low-intensity exercise interventions. These positive effects are of great value for older adults who are already physically impaired in improving their quality of life.
Physical activity recommendations aiming at improving individuals’ mental health should reconsider the inclusion of light-intensity activity, the inter changeability of moderate and vigorous activity, and the fact that more physical activity does not lead to better outcomes for all intensities and age groups.
Burgomaster K.A., Howarth K.R., Phillips S.M., Rakobowchuk M., Macdonald M.J., McGee S.L., Gibala M.J. (2008). “Similar metabolic adaptations during exercise after low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance training in humans”. J. Physiol. 2008; 586: 151-160. PubMed, Crossref, Google Scholar.
Downward P, Dawson, P. (2016). “Is it pleasure or health from leisure that we benefit from most? An analysis of well-being alternatives and implications for policy”. Soc Indic Res 2016; 126:443–65.
Fry C.S., Drummond M.J., Glynn E.L., Dickinson J.M., Gundermann D.M., Timmerman K.L., Walker D.K., Volpi E., Rasmussen B.B. (2013). “Skeletal muscle autophagy and protein breakdown following resistance exercise are similar in younger and older adults”. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 2013; 68: 599-607 Scopus (101), PubMed, Crossref
Gillen J.B., Martin B.J., MacInnis M.J., Skelly L.E., Tarnopolsky M.A., Gibala M.J. (2016). “Twelve weeks of sprint interval training improves indices of cardiometabolic health similar to traditional endurance training despite a five-fold lower exercise volume and time commitment”. PLoS ONE. 2016; 11: e0154075. Scopus (159), PubMed, Google Scholar
Goodpaster B.H., Park S.W., Harris T.B., Kritchevsky S.B., Nevitt M., Schwartz A.V., Simonsick E.M., Tylavsky F.A., Visser M., Newman A.B. (2006). “The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study”. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 2006; 61: 1059-1064. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/96452/E87301.pdf . PubMed, Google Scholar
Irving B.A., Lanza I.R., Henderson G.C., Rao R.R., Spiegelman B.M., Nair K.S. (2015). “Combined training enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity independent of age”. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2015; 100: 1654-1663. Scopus (57), PubMed, Crossref, Google Scholar
MacInnis M.J., Zacharewicz E., Martin B.J., Haikalis M.E., Skelly L.E., Tarnopolsky M.A., Murphy R.M., Gibala M.J. (2016) “Superior mitochondrial adaptations in human skeletal muscle after interval compared to continuous single-leg cycling matched for total work”. Physiol. 2016; https://doi.org/10.1113/JP272570 Scopus (90), Crossref, Google Scholar.
Martin D.R., Dutta P., Mahajan S., Varma S., Stevens Jr., S.M. (2016). “Structural and activity characterization of human PHPT1 after oxidative modification”. Sci. Rep. 2016; 6: 23658. PubMed, Scopus (12), Crossref, Google Scholar
Matthew M. Robinson., Surendra Dasari., Adam R. Konopka., Rickey E. Carter., Ian R. Lanza., K. Sreekumaran Nair. (2017) “Enhanced Protein Translation Underlies Improved Metabolic and Physical Adaptations to Different Exercise Training Modes in Young and Old Humans”. CELL METABOLISM, VOLUME 25, ISSUE 3, P581-592, March 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2017.02.009
Miller B.F., Konopka A.R., Hamilton K.L. (2016). “The rigorous study of exercise adaptations: why mRNA might not be enough.” J. Appl. Physiol. 2016; 121: 594-596. Scopus (28), Crossref, Google Scholar
Neufer P.D., Bamman M.M., Muoio D.M., Bouchard C., Cooper D.M., Goodpaster B.H., Booth F.W., Kohrt W.M., Gerszten R.E., Mattson M.P. et al. (2015). “Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of physical activity-induced health benefits”. Cell Metab. 2015; 22: 4-11. Scopus (198), PubMed
N.M.de Vries, C.D.van Ravensberg, J.S.M.Hobbelen, M.G.M.Olde Rikkert, J.B.Staal, M.W.G.Nijhuis-van der Sanden. (2012). “Effects of physical exercise therapy on mobility, physical functioning, physical activity and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults with impaired mobility, physical disability and/or multi-morbidity”. Ageing Research Reviews. Volume 11, Issue 1, January 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2011.11.002
Pamela Wicker, Bernd Frick (2017). “Intensity of physical activity and subjective well-being: an empirical analysis of the WHO recommendations”. Journal of Public Health, Volume 39, Issue 2, June 2017. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdw062
Ross R., de Lannoy L., Stotz P.J. (2015). “Separate effects of intensity and amount of exercise on interindividual cardiorespiratory fitness response”. Mayo Clin. Proc. 2015; 90: 1506-1514/ Scopus (95), PubMed.
World Health Organization. (2016). “Mental Health: Facing the Challenges, Building Solutions”. Copenhagen: World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe. (February 2016,).