• Zhenya Robeva Ministry of Defense, Bulgarian Army, Republic of Bulgaria


management of the security and defense, management of human resources, demotivation, demotivators


"Serviceman" is a profession that is associated with increased physical activity and handling of various types of individual and collective weapons. High physical culture, mental resilience and respected personal qualities are required of servicemen. Choosing this profession is a matter of motivation, which probably originally arose from social needs, but remaining in military service and deciding on a profession is a matter of intrinsic motivation. Motivation is influenced by motivators in the organization, and the presence of motivators implies the presence of demotivators. The question arises as to how to identify demotivators in order to take timely measures to eliminate or limit them and to avoid the demotivation of servicemen. Recognition of demotivators requires an individual approach to the servicemen of the formation. The onset of demotivation can be seen in two ways - the appearance of the serviceman and the behavior of the serviceman. Although in most cases the deterioration of appearance follows the negative changes in the behavior of the serviceman, in the absence of attention from direct commanders and superiors and in the absence of motivation specialists, most often the appearance of external scars is initially noticed. Therefore, we will first pay attention to the appearance. The appearance of servicemen is determined by statutes, but this does not mean that it is always neat. The onset of demotivation can be seen in poorly maintained and non-ironed uniforms, people are beginning to pay less attention to hair and the look of the shoes. Another external sign of demotivation is weight gain, which is generally uncharacteristic of a profession that requires increased physical activity. To the signs can be added the condition of the workplace, what the desk looks like and the cleanliness of the room. Negligence can also be seen in the maintenance of personal weapons. Behavioral changes due to demotivation are mainly expressed in the lack of taking any initiative and responsibility. The set tasks are performed without investing creativity, only according to the given instructions. A person goes to work without desire, without mood, without a smile, with a negative and sluggish facial expression, away from colleagues, does not participate in conversations, does not work in a team, isolates himself from others. Whenever possible he avoids going to work, rushes to exhaust his annual leave and uses more days of temporary incapacity leave. There is an absolute reluctance to work and attempts to transfer the duties and responsibilities of others at every opportunity. He takes advantage of the chances to "pass the meter" and even that motivates him to stay in this job. All these indicators mean that there are demotivators in the formation and they must be sought, analyzed and removed. Demotivators can be different, diverse and act with different force and in different ways, both on the individual serviceman and on the team or units. Perhaps one of the most powerful demotivators in the military is waiting. Nothing is more demotivating than inaction and waiting to set tasks, give instructions and conclusions that will be made for the competence of superiors. Negative communication works with the same force. Negative opinion, lack of recognition and destructive criticism kill any new idea and its realization. Encouraging, rewarding and promoting people without merit, for personal sympathy and other reasons, leads to a loss of meaning to invest diligence and demotivation. Feelings of insignificance, fear, lack of future and many other demotivators can destroy the normal work environment and the favorable climate in the formation.


Ангелова, М. (2018). Управление на (де)мотивационния процес и неговото влияние върху човешкия капитал. Пловдив, България: Паисий Хилендарски

Ангелова, М. (2014). Предпоставки за устойчиво развитие на човешките ресурси чрез преодоляване на тяхната демотивация. Управление и устойчиво развитие. 4/2014 (47)

Дени, Р. (2007). Мотивирай и спечели. София, България: СофтПрес

Димитрова, С. (2014). Мениджмънт на ресурсите в динамично променящата се среда на сигурност. Русе, България: Примакс

Зарбова, Б. (2019). Благополучието на държавните служители – мисия възможна. Във В. Василев и кол. Годишна среща на специалистите по човешки ресурси в държавната администрация. (стр. 37-45). Пловдив, България: Институт по публична администрация

Цветков, Г. (2018). Подходи и мерки за решаване на проблемите с некомплекта и резерва във въоръжените сили. В З. Марков и кол. България в общата европейска отбрана. (стр. 42-51). София, България: Център за изследване на политиките в сигурността и отбраната, Фондация Фридрих Еберт.

Армията демотивирана и с ниско самочувствие. (2013).

България в НАТО и Европейската отбрана. Визия за отбранителната политика до 2030г. (2018). Атлантически съвет на България

Доклад за състоянието на отбраната и Въоръжените сили. (2020). София, България: Министерство на отбраната на Република България.

Национална отбранителна стратегия. (2016). София, България: Министерство на отбраната на Република България.




How to Cite

Robeva, Z. (2022). RECOGNITION OF DEMOTIVATORS IN MILITARY FORMATIONS. KNOWLEDGE - International Journal , 52(1), 127–131. Retrieved from