• Tijana Milanović Academy of Applied Technical and Preschool Studies Nis, Serbia
  • Gordana Bogdanović Academy of Applied Technical and Preschool Studies Nis, Serbia


Resistance, bacteria, antibiotic, land


The main and successful use of antibiotics is in the treatment of humans, and it is increasingly used for the prevention and treatment of animals and plants. However, a large number of drugs, ie antibiotics, are released into water and land through municipal wastewater, sewage and used for irrigation and fertilization of agricultural arable land. Soil type determines the number of bacteria and the level of antibiotic degradation. The specific feature of bacteria is that they have well-developed mechanisms of adaptation. The consequence of frequent use of antibiotics is the resistance of bacteria to them. By treatment, antibiotics do not distinguish pathogens from non-pathogenic bacteria. Heavy metal pollution affects all forms of life. Antimicrobial agents that kill microorganisms or have the ability to prevent their growth, mainly change the microbiosphere and the impact of antibiotic pollution on biodiversity. Bacteria play a major role in nature as inhibitors of antimicrobial activity. According to some authors, antibiotics have a hormonal effect on the soil, which in large quantities can cause great damage to flora and fauna, and thus to the environment. Increasing the concentration of antibiotics in natural ecosystems, as a consequence of human activity, changes the function of antimicrobial agents and resistance. These changes affect the selection of microorganisms in the soil, the structure and number of non-pathogenic bacteria and the physiology of microorganisms. Degradation of antibiotics occurs naturally in the soil in the process of biodegradation, photodegradation and chemical degradation. In order for these processes of natural decomposition of antibiotics to take place, the influence of temperature, humidity, pH, ions (chemical composition of the environment) is required. Microbiota also have an important influence, which helps a lot in biodegradation, which means that in different habitats, antibiotics decompose differently. Antibiotics can directly or indirectly affect the composition and abundance of microbial communities. Direct influence leads to the disappearance of microorganisms or even the inhibition of a group of microorganisms. Indirect action creates selections of resistant microorganisms that can cause phenotypic or genetic variability and affect various physiological activities. Both effects of antibiotics can affect the structure and function of the microbial population of the environment. Soil microorganisms are susceptible to resistance genes and spread to human pathogens by horizontal gene transfer, which directly affects human health. In addition to affecting human health, antibiotics have a direct effect on fauna and flora. Controlled use of antibiotics and their proper disposal and destruction, without affecting the environment, are important

Author Biographies

Tijana Milanović, Academy of Applied Technical and Preschool Studies Nis, Serbia

Department Vranje, Serbia

Gordana Bogdanović, Academy of Applied Technical and Preschool Studies Nis, Serbia

Department Vranje, Serbia


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How to Cite

Milanović, T., & Bogdanović, G. (2022). BACTERIAL RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTICS IN RESPONSE TO SOIL POLLUTION. KNOWLEDGE - International Journal , 50(3), 347–351. Retrieved from

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